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SELECT A STATE from the National Totals dropdown menu to view statistics about impaired driving and underage drinking.

SELECT A LAW to view the details of each state’s impaired driving and underage drinking laws.

See how your state measures up to the rest of the country!

State Law: Drug Evaluation and Classification Program
  • 0-15 DREs
  • 16-50 DREs
  • 51-100 DREs
  • 101-150 DREs
  • 151-250 DREs
  • 251-350 DREs
  • 351-500 DREs
  • 500+ DREs

The ability to identify drugged drivers at roadside started back in the 1970s when the Los Angeles Police Department established the Drug Evaluation and Classification (DEC) Program. The purpose of the program is to train officers to become Drug Recognition Experts (DREs) who are capable of identifying drug impairment. Officers are required to go through three phases of training totaling more than 100 hours before they are eligible to receive DRE field certification.

The DEC program goes beyond the Standardized Field Sobriety Test (SFST) training that most officers receive. DREs use a standardized 12-step protocol that allows them to determine whether a suspect is impaired, if that impairment is caused by drugs or can be attributed to a medical condition, and the category of drug(s) that are the cause of the impairment.

All fifty states, Canada, and the United Kingdom have implemented the DEC program. The above map shows how many certified DREs were present in each state in 2014 (the most recent year for which the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) has released data). is committed to increasing the number of officers trained to identify drugged drivers. We have partnered with the Governors Highway Safety Association to fund DRE training in 2016 and 2017. To learn more about drugged driving and enforcement strategies, access Drug-Impaired Driving: A Guide for What States Can Do.

To submit a law update, please contact out Director of Traffic Safety at [email protected]


2016 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatality Data Colorado National
Total Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities 161 10,497
Percent of Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities of Total Fatalities 26.6 28.0
Under 21 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities 18 1,031
Percent of Under 21 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities of Total Under 21 Fatalities 23.7 22.3
2016 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities per 100,000 Population
Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities per 100K population 2.9 3.3
Under 21 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities per 100K population 1.2 1.2
2007-2016 % Change in Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities per 100K Pop
10-year Change in Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities per 100K pop -15.7 -24.7
10-year Change in Under 21 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities per 100K pop -27.0 -44.8
Percent of Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities Involving high BAC drivers (.15+)*
BAC=.15+ 78.5 70.3
Percent of Drivers in Fatal Crashes Involving Repeat Offenders
BAC .08-.14 21.1 26.6
BAC .15+ 78.9 73.4
12-20 Year Old Alcohol Consumption (latest available)
Past Month Alcohol Consumption (2015-2016) 21.5 19.8
Binge Drinking in Past 30-days (2015-2016) 13.7 12.7
2016 Arrest Data
Under 18: Driving under the influence 217 5,135
Total: Driving under the influence 23,364 1,017,808
Under 18: Liquor laws 1,389 29,073
Total: Liquor laws 9,025 234,899
Under 18: Drunkenness 47 3,805
Total: Drunkenness 249 376,433

Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatality Data Source: NHTSA/FARS, 10/17

*Among drivers with a known alcohol test result

Youth Consumption Data Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 12/2017 (

Arrest Data Source: 2016 FBI Uniform Crime Report (Tables 18, 20 and 22)

**Drunkenness is not considered a crime in some states; therefore, the figures may vary widely from state to state

Limited, incomplete, or no data were reported by the District of Columbia, Florida, Illinois, and New York in the 2016 Uniform Crime Report. Data should be used with caution and should not be compared to other states or previous year data.

Note: Because the number of agencies submitting arrest data varies from year to year, users are cautioned about making direct comparisons between 2016 arrest totals and those published in previous years’ editions of Crime in the United States. Further, arrest figures may vary widely from state to state because some Part II crimes of the Uniform Crime Report are not considered crimes in some states.

We all can work to end impaired driving. Learn how here.

For a comprehensive report on 2016 (latest available) State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America, click here.

State Law State Law Detail
24/7 Programs No 24/7 legislation
Administrative License Suspension/Revocation ALS/ALR law enacted
BAC Test Refusal Administrative penalties
Drug Evaluation and Classification Program 151-250 DREs
DUI Child Endangerment Laws Enhanced penalties
DUI Look-back Periods Lifetime
DUID Zero Tolerance and Per Se Laws Reasonable inference law with a limit greater than zero for THC
Oral Fluids no law, pilot only
Enhanced Penalties for High-BAC 0.15
Felony DUI Fourth offense
Good Samaritan Good Samaritan law enacted
Habitual Offender Designation Habitual Offender Law Enacted
Marijuana Drug-Impaired Driving Laws Permissible inference THC law (5 nanograms)
Open Container - Alcohol In compliance with Federal requirements
Sobriety Checkpoints Permitted
DUI Courts - Standalone 11-15 DUI Courts
DUI Courts - Hybrid 1-5 Hybrid Courts
Open Container - Marijuana Marijuana-specific open container law
DUID Affirmative Defense No affirmative defense
Ignition Interlocks Incentivized first offender and mandatory high-BAC/repeat
Top Detected Drug Category by State (2017) Cannabis